Genetic origins, collective smoking and lung setting certainly one of female
Among step one735 women, each 10 pack-years of smoking was associated with a ?0.85% (95% CI ?1.13% to ?0.57%) mean decrement in FEV1 to FVC ratio, a ?48.6 ml (95% CI ?61.6 to ?35.7) mean decrement in FEV1 and a 1.36 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.55) increase in the odds of airflow obstruction. Plots of the relationship of pack-years to FEV1 to FVC ratio showed similarly linear relationships for racial/ethnic groups (see online supplementary figure S1B).
There was no evidence that the relationship of pack-years to FEV1, FEV1 to FVC ratio or airflow obstruction differed by genetic ancestry among Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic women (table 3). Chinese-American women were excluded from this analysis given the very small number with a smoking history. Similarly, there was also no evidence for effect modification by self-reported race/ethnicity among women (table 3).
Mean difference between lung setting and or to have airflow obstruction for each 10 package-several years of smoking certainly females, stratified by competition/ethnicity
Among African-American and Hispanic women, there was no evidence for any interaction between pack-years and proportion African ancestry and, among Hispanics, Native American ancestry for the FEV1 or FEV1 to FVC ratio (all p>0.05).
Cumulative smoking and you may per cent emphysema
Characteristics of 8247 participants included in the analyses of per cent emphysema are shown in online supplementary table S1. Among women, every 10 pack-years of smoking were associated with a 0.43% increase in per cent emphysema (p<0.001). Among men, 10 pack-years of smoking was associated with a 0.10% increase in per cent emphysema, though the association was not statistically significant (p=0.30). There was no evidence that this association differed by genetic ancestry among men or women, although in women there was a suggestion of effect modification by self-reported race/ethnicity (p=0.03; online supplementary table S2). Furthermore, there was no evidence that the association of pack-years to per cent emphysema varied by continental ancestry among African-American and Hispanic women and men (p>0.16).
Among 1255 men and women with a history of smoking greater than 10 pack-years (mean pack-years 36, SD ±26), there was also no evidence of that the relationship of pack-years to FEV1, FEV1 to FVC ratio or airflow obstruction differed by self-reported race/ethnicity or genetic ancestry (see online supplementary table S3).
In the present study sample, 96% of Chinese, 69% of Hispanics, 9% of African-Americans and 7% of Caucasians were immigrants to the USA. Among Hispanics (as well as Caucasians and African-Americans), there was no evidence that either immigrant status or years lived outside the USA was associated with the FEV1 or FEV1 to FVC ratio. Among Chinese-Americans, immigrant status was not associated with either FEV1 or FEV1 to FVC ratio (p=0.37 and p=0.72, respectively). Years lived outside the USA was not associated with FEV1 (p=0.19) but was associated with a small decrement in mean FEV1 to FVC ratio (?0.06%, (95% CI ?0.11% to ?0.02%) p=0.001); additional adjustment for immigrant status and years lived outside the USA did not, however, alter the main results on the relationship among race, pack-years and lung function (see online supplementary table S4).
Since MESA excluded participants with clinical cardiovascular disease, we repeated analyses restricted to participants aged 45–64 years, an age range in which clinical cardiovascular disease is rare, and found similar results (see online supplementary table S5). Site-specific analyses demonstrated no significant interactions with the FEV1 to FVC ratio and a significant interaction with the FEV1 at one of the two sites that recruited Chinese-Americans (see online supplementary table S6), although the direction of association was inconsistent across the six sites.
In this large, population-based sample, there was no consistent evidence that the associations of rencontres nudistes locales cumulative smoking with FEV1 to FVC ratio, airflow obstruction or per cent emphysema varied by genetic ancestry among the four largest race/ethnic groups in the USA.